6. What are the reasons of more and more inconsistances between sound and form..7. What is vocabulary?8. What are the three stages of development of the English v...

加拿大多伦多大学的学者进行了一项研究,提示IDH突变是胶质瘤形成的始动因素,文章于825日发表在JAMANeurol杂志上。

神经胶质瘤是一种中枢神经系统的肿瘤疾病,源自神经胶质细胞的病变。神经胶质瘤通常位于脑部,但也有可能出现于其他神经,如视觉神经。

异柠檬酸脱氢酶是一种以NAD+NADP+受体,作用于供体CH-OH基团上的氧化还原酶。异柠檬酸脱氢酶需要Mn2+Mg2+以维持活性。真核细胞中的异柠檬酸脱氢酶以两种形式存在:其中一种与NAD+相关联且仅在线粒体中被发现并可以变构调节;另一种与NADP+还存在于细胞质基质中但不能变构调节。

在过去的四年里,由于发现异柠檬酸脱氢酶(IDH)的突变,对胶质瘤形成的理解和神经肿瘤的时间发生了巨大的改变。目前认为IDH突变是胶质瘤形成的始动因素,对原癌基因进展的分子和遗传机制以及临床疗效均有深远影响。

本研究旨在回顾IDH在正常生理活动中的作用,描述与胶质瘤形成相关的IDH通路的失常。回顾IDH靶向治疗在IDH突变肿瘤中的作用的研究,并且阐明这一研究是如何扩展我们对IDH突变在胶质瘤形成和发展中作用的理解。

研究者使用PubMed数据库以系统回顾自2008年(发现IDH突变与胶质瘤相关)至2013年的文献。检索的术语为:IDH,IDH1,IDH2和异柠檬酸脱氢酶,以及胶质瘤或白血病。检索语言限定在英语。使用标识出版物的相关文献回顾以进一步的手工检索。Z.T.S.D研究和甄别了所有已确认的原创论文。

研究结果提示:IDH突变是胶质瘤行形成的早期事件,对胶质瘤进展和肿瘤行为有重要的影响。早期证据表明IDHIDH突变的胶质瘤中可能是潜在的治疗靶点。

在胶质瘤的形成和发展中,IDH突变是中心的和决定性的事件,或许是未来治疗这种类型肿瘤的关键靶点。

英语词汇学问题库(一)

C1

AGeneralSurveytoEnglishV

ocabulary

1.Whatislexicology?

2.WhatisthenatureandscopeofEnglishLexicology?

3.WhatsubjectsisEnglishLexicologycorrelatedwith?Andtowhatextent?

4.WhyshouldastudentofEnglishstudyEnglishLexicology?

5.Whatisaword?

6.Whatarethereasonsofmoreandmoreinconsistancesbetweensoundandform..

7.Whatisvocabulary?

8.WhatarethethreestagesofdevelopmentoftheEnglishvocabulary?

9.Illustratetherelationshipbetweensoundandmeaningwithexamples.

10.WhatarethethreemaincriteriafortheclassificationofEnglishwords?

11.

Whatisacommonword

(通用词

,literaryword

(文学词)

colloquialword

(口语词)

,slangword

(俚语词)

jargon

(行

话)

,argot

(黑话)

,neologism

(新词语)

?Giveexamples.

12.Whatishybrid

(混种词)

?

13.HowdoyouaccountfortheroleofnativewordsinEnglishinrelationtoloan-words?

14.Whatarethefundamentalfeaturesofthebasicwordstock?Whatistheimportanceofbasicwordstock?

15.Whatarethemajorcausesoftherapidgrowthofpresent-dayEnglishvocabulary?

16.Whatarefunctionwordsandcontentwords?Whatarethedifferencesbetweenthem?

17.WhatarethecharacteristicfeaturesoftheEnglishvocabulary?

18.Whatarenativewords?Whatareloanwords?

19.WhatismeantbythecomplexityoftheEnglishvocabulary?

20.WhatismeantbytheIndo-EuropeanfamilyofLanguages?Howmanygroupsoflanguagesareincludedinthisfamilyof

languages?WhichgroupdoestheEnglishlanguagebelongto?

21.WhyshouldstudentsofEnglishlexicologystudyIndo-EuropeanLanguageFamily?

22.HowoldistheEnglishlanguage?HowmanyperiodsisthehistoryofEnglsihdividedinto?Statebrieflythespecialfeatures

ofeachperiodinthehistoryoftheEnglishlanguage(fromtheangleofthevocabulary).

23.

What

is

the

importance

of

the

native

element

in

the

English

vocabulary?What

is

the

foundation

of

the

English

vocabylary?Whatarethefundamentalfeatuesofthebasicword-stock?Whatcategorieswordsbelongtothebasicword-stock?

24.WhatistheimportanceoftheforeignelementinthedevelopmentoftheEnglishvocabulary?Whatforeignlanguagesshould

wepayspecialattentionto?

25.Enunmerate

(列举)

themajormodesofmodernvocabularydevelopment.

C2

Morphology

1.WhatistheinternalstructureofanEnglishword?

2.Whatisamorpheme?Whatisanallomorph?

3.Whatisthedifferencebetweenamorphemeandasyllable?Illustrateyourpointswithexamples.

4.Whatisafreemorphemeandwhatisboundmorpheme?Whatarethedifferencesbetweenthem?

5.Whatisroot?Whatarethedifferencesbetweenafreerootandaboundroot?

6.Whatisanaffix?Whatarethedifferencesbetweenaninflectionalaffixandaderivationalaffix?

7.Whatisa prefix ?Whatisa suffix ?Whatisadjectivesuffix?

8.Whatisthedifferencebetweena suffix andan ending ?

9.Howarewordsclassifiedonthemorphemiclevel?

10.Whataredifferencesbetweenaroot,abaseandastem?Illustateyourpointswithexamples.

11.Howmanytypesofword-formationsarethereintheEnglishlanguage?

12.Whatiscompounding(composition)?Whatisderivation(affixation)?Whatarethedifferencebetweenthetwo?

13.Whatisprefixationandwhatissuffixation?Whatisthedifferencebetweenprefixationandsuffixantion?